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old chinese phonology

02.12.2020

[1. Autres éditions - Tout afficher. Few changes to final consonants occur; the main ones are the loss of /j/ after a high vowel, the disappearance of /ɨ/ (which might or might not be reckoned as a final consonant) in the rhyme /-ɛɨ/, and (potentially) the appearance of /jŋ/ and /jk/ (which are suspect in various ways; see below). Old Chinese phonology Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. In addition, in some Min varieties, some words with EMC stops are reflected with stops while others are reflected with "softened" consonants, typically voiced fricatives or approximants. According to Sagart, this fortition was impeded if the lateral was preceded by an unspecified consonant or minor syllable. Finally, some of the resulting "changes" may not be actual changes at all so much as conceptual differences in the way the systems have been reconstructed; these are noted below. When this happens, the glide disappears. Sonorants: retroflex nasal merged into alveolar nasal; Before high front vowel or glide, velars ("back-tooth" stops and "throat" fricatives) and alveolar sibilants. The split tones then merge back together except for Middle Chinese tone 1; hence Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4. Chinese Phonology Conrad Bender Senior Paper Languages and Linguistics May 4,1988 . For example, all modern varieties other than Min Chinese have labiodental fricatives (e.g. See below for more information. Old Chinese Phonology Zev Handel; Middle Chinese Phonology and Qieyun Wuyun Pan and Hongming Zhang; Early Mandarin Seen from Ancient Altaic Scripts: The Rise of a New Phonological Standard Zhongwei Shen; Languages and Dialects. Austric Languages Baoya Chen and Zihe Li; The Austronesian Languages of Taiwan Paul Jen-kuei Li; Tibeto-Burman George van Driem; Chinese … Language: english. To a large degree, Late Middle Chinese (LMC) of c. 1000 AD can be viewed as the direct ancestor of all Chinese varieties except Min Chinese; in other words, attempting to reconstruct the parent language of all varieties excluding Min leads no farther back than LMC. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology William Hubbard Baxter, Associate Professor of Linguistics and Asian Languages and Cultures William H Baxter Snippet view - 1992. When voiced stops became unvoiced in most varieties and triggered a tone split, words with these stops moved into new lowered (so-called yang) tone classes, while words with unvoiced stops appeared in raised (so-called yin) tone classes. This has caused scholars to reconstruct voiced aspirates (probably realized as breathy voiced consonants) in Proto-Min, which develop into unvoiced aspirates in yang-class words. The additional three series are voiced aspirated (or breathy voiced), unvoiced "softened", and voiced "softened". View all » Common terms and phrases. Note that these reconstructions included voiceless sonorants, of which the developments have been consisted with their fortition and reflexes. Pages: 922 / 933. The tones do not change phonemically. OLD CHINESE PHONOLOGY S. E. YAKHONTOV Translated by Jerry Norman (University of Washington, Seattle) (Translator's note: The following excerpt is taken from S. E. Yakhontov's short book Drevneki tajskij Jazyk (Moscow, 1965). The following are the main developments that produced Early Middle Chinese (EMC) from Old Chinese (OC): Note that OC type-B syllables correspond closely to division-III, and (in Baxter's reconstruction at least) to EMC syllables with /i/ or /j/. Not only does it not reflect the development of labiodental fricatives or other LMC-specific changes, but a number of features already present in EMC appear never developed. Transcriptions of Chinese by foreigners, especially the, A syllable consisted of an initial consonant, an optional medial glide. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. 311: Cognate objects and the realization of thematic structure . Handel, Zev (韓哲夫) is Associate Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle. ISBN 3-11-012324-X I. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. XIII, 922 pp. File: PDF, 102.92 MB. Categories: Linguistics\\Foreign. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. The following is a basic summary; more information can be found in the table of EMC finals in Middle Chinese. [This is a translation of the … This work of Yakhorrtov is a concise and quite general description of his reconstruction of Old Chinese… New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation: Morphology, Phonology and the ... Jerome L. Packard Aperçu limité - … Achetez et téléchargez ebook A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Trends in Linguistics. Some Notes on Chinese Historical Phonology 281. sequences are no doubt possible, e.g. Old Chinese phonology and Reconstructions of Old Chinese seem to be two things that keep cropping up every now and again. Introduction] [1.1 Historical linguistics in East Asian and European languages] The linguistic history of Chinese bears some analogy to that of Romance: Mandarin, Cantonese, Wu (from the lower reaches of … Send-to-Kindle or Email . searching for Old Chinese phonology 39 found (64 total) alternate case: old Chinese phonology. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. for Old Chinese, little direct evidence is available for establishing the early forms of specific words. Syllables with a final stop consonant, originally toneless, get assigned to one of the four modern tones; for syllables with Middle Chinese unvoiced initials, this happens in a completely random fashion. The following topics will be covered: overview of Old Chinese phonology new features in the Baxter-Sagart system (the A/B distinction; the uvulars) incorporating uncertainty in the reconstructions strategy of research morphology and word families Old Chinese dialects the Chinese script as an imperfect syllabary enriched with … We now know that the phonological structure of Old Chinese— the Chinese of the first millennium BCE—was strikingly different from all modern forms of Chinese. Retroflex stops merged into retroflex affricates. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1992 (OCoLC)607898912 Online version: Baxter, William Hubbard, 1949-Handbook of old Chinese phonology. Various other changes occur after particular initials. According to them, voiced aspirates reflect Old Chinese stops in words with particular consonant prefixes, while softened stops reflect Old Chinese stops in words with a minor syllable prefix, so that the stop occurred between vowels. Scholars generally assume that these additional Proto-Min sounds reflect distinctions in Old Chinese that vanished in Early Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min. We now know that the phonological structure of Old Chinese— the Chinese of the first millennium BCE—was strikingly different from all modern forms of Chinese. In the case of distinctions that appear to have never developed in Min, it could be argued that the ancestral language did in fact have these distinctions, but they later disappeared. The result is that the yin classes have words with both aspirated and unaspirated stops, while the yang classes have only one of the two, depending on how the formerly voiced stops developed. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). The MC palatal sibilant reflex, sy, is only found in Type B syllables. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us. Obviously, this topic cannot be fully explored in a paper of this length. Please login to your account first; Need help? (Some syllables with original Mandarin tone 3 move to tone 4; see below.) case the best phonetic value to assume for the original borrowing of Sino- Vietnamese is certainly cj, that is a cluster of palatal stop followed by palatal glide, in contrast to the simple palatal initial ch which was … This position, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, is upheld by Baxter. Broadly speaking, Old Chinese phonology (Shànggǔ yÄ«n 上古音) is the sound system of Old Chinese, the language of the early first millennium BCE that underlies the rhymes (=rimes) of the ShÄ«jÄ«ng 詩經 (the Book of Odes) and the system of phonetic elements in the early Chinese script.An early stage of this language … /f/), a change that occurred after Early Middle Chinese (EMC) of c. 600 AD. Baxter (1992), 42. … For example, some variants retain OC /m/ before the glide, while in other variants, it had developed into a labiodental initial (å¾®): compare Cantonese 文 man4 and Mandarin 文 wén. Min varieties, however, have both kinds of words in yang classes as well as yin classes. Most modern varieties can be viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese (LMC) of c. 1000 AD. Other changes occurring in most modern varieties, such as the loss of initial voiced obstruents and corresponding tone split, are areal changes that spread across existing dialects; possibly the loss of chongniu distinctions can be viewed in the same way. Although the Chinese textual record provides relatively direct evidence of early Chinese vocabulary and syntax, the nature of the nonalphabetic Chinese writing system obscures the tremendous changes in pronunciation that have occurred over the past 3,000 years. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] 64) (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - Linguistics : Amazon.fr share | improve this question | follow | edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda. Baxter's Handbook is an important event in the field of Chinese historical phonology … As Chinese is written with logographic characters, not alphabetic or syllabary, the methods employed in Historical Chinese phonology differ considerably from those employed in, for example, Indo-European linguistics; reconstruction is more difficult because, unlike Indo-European languages, no phonetic spellings were used. In the following, Baxter's EMC reconstruction is compared to Pulleyblank's LMC reconstruction. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology William H. Baxter. The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Linguistics, 5.2 The Value of Old Chinese Reconstruction, 5.3 Historical Linguistics and Old Chinese Reconstruction, 5.4 Bernhard Karlgren and the Origins of the Modern Field, 5.5 Features of Karlgren’s Old Chinese and Later Revisions, 5.5.7 The Old Chinese Type A/B Distinction, 5.7 Areas of Controversy and Future Directions. There were on the order of six main vowels: The system of final (coda) consonants was similar to EMC; however, there was no, Tones developed from the former suffixes (post-final consonants), with MC tone 3 ("departing") developing from, Labiovelar initials were reanalyzed as a velar followed a, The main vowel developed in various complicated ways, depending on the surrounding sounds. From Early Middle Chinese to Late Middle Chinese, From Late Middle Chinese to Standard Mandarin, Learn how and when to remove this template message, characters sharing the same phonetic component, Old Chinese phonology § Evidence from Min Chinese, Introduction to Chinese Historical Phonology, Reconstruction of Middle Chinese and Old Chinese as well as intermediate forms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historical_Chinese_phonology&oldid=984484657, Articles needing additional references from August 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2014, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The strong influence and long tradition of Chinese writing, which included no concept of an. For example, in type-A syllables, according to Baxter's reconstruction, OC, The class of EMC palatals is lost, with palatal sibilants becoming retroflex sibilants and the palatal nasal becoming a new phoneme, A new class of labiodentals emerges, from EMC labials followed by, The eight-way EMC distinction in main vowels is significantly modified, developing into a system with high vowels, After an EMC retroflex sibilant, a directly following high-front vowel or glide (, If high front-rounded vocalics are reconstructed, they unround (, EMC palatals become retroflex, with palatal sibilants merging with retroflex sibilants and palatal, Voiced consonants are thought to have become, Among the two Chinese varieties that have not merged voiced and unvoiced consonants, Wu reflects the EMC voiced consonants as breathy voiced, but. searching for Old Chinese phonology 38 found (63 total) alternate case: old Chinese phonology. Year: 1992. Traditional Chinese Phonology Guillaume Jacques Chinese historical phonology differs from most domains of contemporary linguistics in that its general framework is based in large part on a genuinely native tradition. US$ 241.45 / DM 338.- (HB). кэса- > kca- > cca- > cja-. The study of Middle Chinese phonology is the starting point for students of historical Chinese phonology, and is considered essential for work on both earlier and later periods. According to Baxter, however, labiodentalization might have occurred independently of each other in different areas. Baxter–Sagart seems to be the big one these days. Rhyme dictionary Qiyin lüe William Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992), 42. There was no MC-style tone, but there was a distinction of some sort between type-A and type-B syllables. Old Chinese … The following changes are in approximate order. Min Chinese, on the other hand, is known to have branched off even before Early Middle Chinese (EMC) of c. 600 AD. The oldest surviving Chinese … [11] Furthermore, MC /l/ was said to have derived from an OC /r/.[12][13]. Changes mostly involve initials, medials, and main vowels. His research interests include historical phonology, Chinese dialectology, Tibeto-Burman languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems. Amazon.com: A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Trends in Linguistics: Studies & Monographs) (English and Chinese Edition) (9783110123241): Baxter, William H.: … He reconstructs 林 to be *Cə-lim, yielding MC lim. L = sonorant initial consonant Compared with EMC, there were no palatal or retroflex consonants, but there were. An … In general, Mandarin preserves the LMC system of medials and main vowels fairly well (better than most other varieties) but drastically reduces the system of codas (final consonants). A Lexical Phonology of Mandarin Chinese . Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. In fact, some post-LMC changes are reflected in all modern varieties, such as the loss of the chongniu distinction (between e.g. Trends in Linguistics. … Publisher: De Gruyter Mouton. 329: Headedness in Chinese . The postulated development of the softened stops is very similar to the development of voiced fricatives in Vietnamese, which likewise occur in both yin and yang varieties and are reconstructed as developing from words with minor syllables. Studies and Monographs; 64. While some scholars treat Middle Chinese as an actual language from which most modern forms of Chinese descend, many others view it as a highly artificial and abstract phonological system. The appearance of Professor W.H. The following table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. © Oxford University Press, 2018. V+ = voiced initial consonant (not sonorant). A HANDBOOK OF OLD CHINESE PHONOLOGY W. South Coblin Review of William H. Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. To the extent that these two systems reflect reality, they may be significantly farther apart than the 400 or so years normally given between EMC and LMC, since Baxter's EMC system was designed to harmonize with Old Chinese while Pulleyblank's LMC system was designed to harmonize with later Mandarin developments. An example is the series of retroflex stops in EMC, which developed from earlier alveolar stops followed by /r/, and which later merged with retroflex sibilants. Rhyme dictionary Qiyin lüe William Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992), 42. Background. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. … This essay examines a hitherto overlooked source: Old Vietnamese, a language substantially attested in a single document, which writes certain words, monosyllabic in modern Vietnamese, in an orthography suggesting sesquisyllabic phonology. 347: Index . All modern Chinese varieties reflect such a split, which produces a new set of phonemic tones in most varieties due to later loss of voicing distinctions. Depending on the linguist, the distinction is variously thought to reflect either presence or absence of prefixes, an accentual or length distinction on the main vowel, or some sort of register distinction (e.g. /, hl /lÌ¥/ and possibly hr /rÌ¥/. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology | William H. Baxter | download | B–OK. Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992. For a number of words loaned from Chinese, Old … Old Chinese phonology in the broader context of the genetic affiliation of Chinese as well as the history of the writing system with a special focus on newly excavated documents. However, allophonically they evidently split into a higher-pitched allophone in syllables with voiced initials, and a lower-pitched allophone in syllables with unvoiced initials. This chapter describes the basic sources and methodology for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology, the history of the field through the 20th century, and the most recent developments that have radically transformed our understanding of Old Chinese phonological structure. In Min, the corresponding words still have alveolar stops. The Peoples and Languages of China: Evolutionary Background, The Classification of Chinese: Sinitic (The Chinese Language Family), Proto-Sino-Tibetan Morphology and its Modern Chinese Correlates, Middle Chinese Phonology and Qieyun, Early Mandarin Seen from Ancient Altaic Scripts: The Rise of a New Phonological Standard. Their reflexes in Middle Chinese are postulated to be: The j in parenthesis correspond to developments from a Type B syllable. /pian/ and /pjian/, using Edwin Pulleyblank's transcription). In particular, Proto-Min (the reconstructed ancestor of the Min varieties) appears to have had six series of stops corresponding to the three series (unvoiced, unvoiced aspirated, voiced) of Middle Chinese. Handbook of old Chinese phonology. Old Chinese Phonology - Volume 4 - S. E. Yakhontov. It provides evidence for the reconstruction of a labiovelar series in Old Chinese, and, taking as a model the development of tonal oppositions from syllable finals in Vietnamese, proposes to reconstruct an Old Chinese derivational suffix *s to account for a series of tonal alternations in Middle Chinese. Exactly which changes occurred between EMC and LMC depends on whose system of EMC and/or LMC reconstruction is used. Such "softened stops" occur in both yin and yang classes, suggesting that Proto-Min had both unvoiced and voiced "softened stops". His books include The Historical Phonology of Tibetan, Burmese, and Chinese (2019), A Lexicon of Tibetan Verb Stems as Reported by the Grammatical Tradition (2010) and Old Tibetan Inscriptions (2009), co-authored with Kazushi Iwao. Main A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. The exact changes involving finals are somewhat complex and not always predictable, in that in many circumstances there are multiple possible outcomes. In any. The systematic changes to medials and main vowels are loss of the chongniu distinctions i/ji and y/jy (which occur in all modern varieties) and loss of the distinction between /a/ and /aː/. Sagart pointed out, however, that these changes are not true if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed prefix. Baxter (1992), 42. … The slim volume here under review is an English translation of a collection of Professor Zhengzhang's university-level teaching materials, supplemented and edited by the translator in collaboration with the author in order to make a work that could stand on its own as an outline presentation to western students of Professor Zhengzhang's proposals for an overall picture of the Old Chinese phonological system and its devolution into Middle Chinese… It summarizes current hypotheses and discusses the implications they have for tracing the early history of Chinese and for exploring the ancient connections between Chinese and other languages of East and Southeast Asia. Historical Chinese phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from the past. This paper will address the very large topic of Chinese phonology. The oldest surviving Chinese … We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Yunjing (734 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns. A brief sketch of Old Chinese phonology in the system of Baxter and Sagart (2014) Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1992 (OCoLC)623312608: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: William … This book introduces a new linguistic reconstruction of the phonology, morphology, and lexicon of Old Chinese, the first Sino-Tibetan language to be reduced to writing. Evidence for the voiced aspirated stops comes from tonal distinctions among the stops. 371: Droits d'auteur. For example, it could be argued that Min varieties descend from a Middle Chinese dialect where retroflex stops merged back into alveolar stops instead of merging with retroflex sibilants. Yunjing (726 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns. Furthermore, Baxter considers all the distinctions of the Qieyun to be real, while many of them are clearly anachronisms that no longer applied to any living form of the language in 600 AD. A tone split occurs as a result of the loss of the voicing distinction in initial consonants. [8] Meanwhile, it developed into /j/ in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese. Find books Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. This difference can be seen in the words for "tea" borrowed into various other languages: For example, Spanish te, English tea vs. Portuguese chá, English chai, reflecting the Amoy (Southern Min) [te] vs. Standard Mandarin [ʈʂʰa]. proposes to reconstruct an Old Chinese derivational suffix *s to account for a series of tonal alternations in Middle Chinese.] Rather than provide an exhaustive study, I shall attempt to give an introduction to Chinese phonology, and then note some particular problems in the study of Chinese … Please subscribe or login to access full text content. Chinese Phonology . Early Middle Chinese (EMC) labials (/p, pÊ°, b, m/) become Late Middle Chinese (LMC) labiodentals (/f, f, bv, ʋ/, possibly from earlier affricates)[14] in certain circumstances involving a following glide. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32. This chapter describes the basic sources and methodology for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology, the history of the field through the 20th century, and the most recent developments that have radically transformed our understanding of Old Chinese phonological … acute initials back vowels Baxter initial type Chapter character chongniu finals cluster Coblin coda Dai Zhen dialects division-Ill finals division-IV Dong Duan Yucai Early Middle Chinese … However, this argument cannot be made if there are distinctions in Min that do not appear in EMC (and which reflect ancient features going back to Old Chinese or – ultimately – even Proto-Sino-Tibetan, so that they cannot be explained as secondary developments), and this does indeed appear to be the case. Presumably "softened stops" were actually fricatives of some sort, but it is unclear exactly what they were. Download books for free. Keywords: Old Chinese phonology, reconstruction methodology, sources, history of Old Chinese reconstruction. The non-Western outlook of the terminology and concepts used in Chinese historical phonology make this field … Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. 1. [2], Additionally, the OC lateral consonant /*l/ is shown to have fortified to a coronal plosive /d/ in Type A syllables. [9] Baxter pointed out xiesheng contacts between plosive series, sibilants and MC y-, and made the following reconstructions.[10]. All final stop consonants are lost, and final nasals are reduced to a distinction between /n/ and /ŋ/. Old Chinese phonology. Preview. old-chinese. The specific relationship between Middle Chinese and modern tones: V- = unvoiced initial consonant Are there any recordings of Old Chinese pronunciations available? Until recently, no reconstructions of Old Chinese specifically accounted for the Proto-Min distinctions, but the recent reconstruction of William Baxter and Laurent Sagart accounts for both voiced aspirates and softened stops. Using Baxter's reconstruction, the triggering circumstances can be expressed simply as whenever a labial is followed by a glide /j/ and the main vowel is a back vowel; other reconstructions word the rule differently. The phonological structure of each syllable consists of a nucleus consisting of a vowel (which can be a monophthong, diphthong, or even a triphthong in certain varieties) with an optional onset or coda consonant as well as a tone. Other early cases of Chinese words borrowed into foreign languages or transcribed in foreign sources, e.g. All Rights Reserved. Call for Abstracts We invite interested scholars to submit abstracts on Old Chinese phonology, Chinese paleography, or the position of Chinese within … Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced at that time; the oldest surviving Chinese … Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Cultural attitudes that treated Koreans, Tibetans, Mongolians and most other foreigners as "barbarians" made it difficult for scientific knowledge from these cultures to diffuse into China. Old Chinese is the language of the earliest Chinese classical texts (1st millennium BCE) and the ancestor of later varieties of Chinese, including all modern Chinese …

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