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list of british colonies


The British Crown Territories are several areas, mostly small islands or archipelagos that are under the jurisdiction of the United Kingdom but do not have representation in the British Parliament. The company set up relationships that were mutually beneficial for both Britain and locals in India and in other countries throughout the Indian Subcontinent. Territories with military bases or responsibilities may also have "Overseas Service Police", members of the British or Commonwealth Armed Forces. In doing so, this presence grew to be more than just an element of commerce. The term "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, replacing the term British Dependent Territory, introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981. Britain ruled Hong Kong with an agreement that the empire would give Hong Kong back to China 99 years after signing the deal, on July 1 1997, which it did. But now, needing funds, Great Britain turned to a policy of stringent taxation, which the colonies opposed. Today, Queen Elizabeth is still officially the head of state for 16 Commonwealth countries outside the UK. United States dollar (widely circulated and accepted universally), Cayman Islands dollar (pegged to US dollar at 1KYD=1.2USD), New Zealand dollar Some territories maintain diplomatic officers in nearby countries for trade and immigration purposes. Several of the territories in the Americas maintain membership within the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, the Caribbean Community, the Caribbean Development Bank, Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency, and the Association of Caribbean States. Commemorative UK Pounds and Stamps issued in GBP have been issued. India was a colony of Britain from 1858 to 1947. This list compiles the top 10 British colonies in terms of their economies and the benefits that the Britons derived from them. While various countries gained their independence over time, even by 1952 when Queen Elizabeth took the throne, over 70 colonies still existed in the empire overseas. It is important to note that the advent of British colonization of Africa coincided with the era of scientific racism as represented by social Darwinism (survival of the fittest). They all have the British monarch as head of state. This eventually led to the American War of Independence, also known as the Revolutionary War, which took place from 1775 to 1783. Right now, Hong Kong is a special administrative region (SAR) of China, but that will change in 2047, when China will likely take complete control of the region. Province of Quebec [83], Two areas, Henderson Island in the Pitcairn Islands as well as the Gough and Inaccessible Islands of Tristan Da Cunha are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and two other territories, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and Saint Helena are on the United Kingdom's tentative list for future UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Each territory has its own attorney general, and court system. St. George's town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World (with some historians stating that – its formation predating the 1619 conversion of "James Fort" into "Jamestown" – St. George's was actually the first successful town the English established in the New World). The inhabited territories compete in their own right at the Commonwealth Games, and three of the territories (Bermuda, the Cayman Islands and the British Virgin Islands) sent teams to the 2016 Summer Olympics. The British Empire once comprised a large assortment of colonies and protectorates around the world, populated by a wide range of native peoples, colonists from more advanced nations, and imported workers from other parts of the Empire. At its height in 1921, this empire had become a refined worldwide network, ruling approximately one quarter of all the land on Earth. Bahamian dollar (accepted unofficially in the Turks and Caicos Islands), Eastern Caribbean dollar (pegged to US dollar at 2.7ECD=1USD), Bermudian dollar (parity with US dollar) List of British Acts on Colonial America. Lower Canada. Exceptions to this are Bermuda which uses a Red Ensign; British Antarctic Territory which uses a White Ensign, but without the overall cross of St. George; British Indian Ocean Territory which uses a Blue Ensign with wavy lines to symbolise the sea; and Gibraltar which uses a banner of its coat of arms (the flag of the city of Gibraltar). In the British colonies, as elsewhere, religious missions were instrumental in introducing European-style education. Most of the languages other than English spoken in the territories contain a large degree of English, either as a root language, or in codeswitching, e.g. [38] It is now a province of Canada known as Newfoundland and Labrador. The governments in both London and territories occasionally meet to mitigate or resolve disagreements over the process of governance in the territories and levels of autonomy.[59]. The Inner Colonies encompassed a region of space in at least a 10.5 light-year three-dimensional radius from Earth. For these residents, registration as full British citizens then required physical residence in the UK proper. A territory may issue belonger status to allow a person to reside in the territory that they have close links with. When the British Empire was at its peak, it was the largest union in the history of mankind. From 1949 to 1983, the nationality status of Citizenship of UK and Colonies (CUKC) was shared by residents of the UK proper and residents of overseas territories, although most residents of overseas territories lost their automatic right to live in the UK after the ratification of Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968 that year unless they were born in the UK proper or had a parent or a grandparent born in the UK. The British Empire was the largest of its kind in history, and once covered about one quarter of all the land on Earth. Euro (accepted unofficially in most establishments) Historians debate exactly how this happened. See also: United Kingdom; Colonial flags; British Empire Flags and Patriotic Decorations. Only the latter grants the right of abode in a specific country or territory, namely, the United Kingdom proper which includes its three Crown Dependencies. British West Africa (1821-1850,1866-1888) British Western Pacific Territories (1877-1976) These were all places Britain wanted to dominate for access to goods such as rubber, salt, gold, ivory, and other natural products. The role of the Governor is to act as the de facto head of state, and they are usually responsible for appointing the head of government, and senior political positions in the territory. Overseas citizens held concurrent European Union citizenship, having given them rights of free movement across all EU member states. [57], In 2012, the FCO published The Overseas Territories: security, success and sustainability which set out Britain's policy for the Overseas Territories, covering six main areas:[58], Britain and the overseas territories do not have diplomatic representations, although the governments of the overseas territories with indigenous populations all retain a representative office in London. Separate self-governing colonies federated to become Canada (in 1867), Australia (in 1901), South Africa (in 1910), and Rhodesia (in 1965). The British Overseas Territories (BOTs), also known as United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are fourteen territories all with a constitutional and historical link with the United Kingdom. As in the Indian Subcontinent, the British used local African tribal leaders to work for them from afar. Britain provides financial assistance to the overseas territories via the Department for International Development. That year, Gilbert sailed for the West Indies with the intention of engaging in piracy and establishing a colony in North America, but the expedition was aborted before it had crossed the Atlantic. Facts about British Colonialism tell you about the colonialism conducted by British people. LIST OF COLONIAL IMMIGRANTS The following alphabetized list includes the names of the seventeenth-century immigrants whose Plantagenet ancestry is the subject of this book, together with several immigrants after 1701 who have been incidentally noted in the text or a footnote. The last province to join since the 1867 confederation was Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949 and the last territory was Nunavut in 1999. The British Overseas Territories have more biodiversity than the entire UK mainland. BAT was formed on March 3, 1962, although the UK claimed it both in 1908 and 1917. Its offshoot, Bermuda, was settled inadvertently after the wrecking of the Virginia company's flagship there in 1609, with the Virginia Company's charter extended to officially include the archipelago in 1612. Foreign affairs of the overseas territories are handled by the FCO in London. The Virgin Islands are also called as BVI or British Virgin Islands to differentiate them from the Virgin Islands owned by the U.S. Ian Hendry and Susan Dickson, "British Overseas Territories Law" (London: Hart Publishing, 2011), Senior British representatives in the constituent protected states, Senior British representatives in the neighbouring Malayan protected states, Senior British representatives in neighbouring protected states, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 09:24. Nothing lasts forever, however. Five years after the handover of Hong Kong to China in 1997, the British government amended the 1981 Act to give British citizenship without restrictions to all BDTCs (the status was also renamed BOTC at the same time) except for those solely connected with Akrotiri and Dhekelia (whose residents already held Cypriot citizenship).[67]. It has a long history of worldwide exploration and it is known for its historic colonies around the world. Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were officially referred to as British Crown Colonies. Responsibility for protection of biodiversity and meeting obligations under international environmental conventions is shared between the UK Government and the local governments of the territories. Currently (2019) all but two Governors are either career diplomats or have worked in other Civil Service departments. Phillips Idowu tracked down... in Team GB photo – Olympic News", "About the Biodiversity of the UK Overseas Territories", "Science: UK Overseas Territories: Biodiversity", "Turks and Caicos Islands – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "Island of St Helena – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "World's Largest Single Marine Reserve Created in Pacific", "Pitcairn Islands get huge marine reserve", "Pitcairn Islands to get world's largest single marine reserve", "Ascension Island to become marine reserve", Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire, Foreign and Commonwealth Office – UK Overseas Territories, British Overseas Territories Act 2002 – Text of the Act, Governors, civil commissioners, and administrators of British dependencies, Commissioner for the British Antarctic Territory, Commissioner for the British Indian Ocean Territory, Commissioner for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Governors of British South African colonies, Lieutenant-Governor of Demerara-Essequibo, Governor of Saint Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla, Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Islands, Governor-General of the West Indies Federation, Governor of Rhode-island and Providence Plantations, High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States, General Adviser to the Government of Johore, High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan, High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, Lieutenant Governor of the Swan River Colony, List of countries by English-speaking population, List of countries where English is an official language,, Dependent territories of European countries, 1983 establishments in British Overseas Territories, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from June 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from April 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2020, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from November 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "A people of excellence, moulded by nature, nurtured by God". List of British Colonies (Wiser Kaiser) Edit. [citation needed] The vast majority of this land area constitutes the almost uninhabited British Antarctic Territory, while the two largest territories by population, the Cayman Islands and Bermuda, account for about half of the total BOT population. British America (New Britain) . In 1578, Elizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. The Pitcairn sexual assault trial of 2004 is an example of how the UK may choose to provide the legal framework for particular cases where the territory cannot do so alone. Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands are the only British Overseas Territories with recognised National Olympic Committees (NOCs); the British Olympic Association is recognised as the appropriate NOC for athletes from the other territories, and thus athletes who hold a British passport are eligible to represent Great Britain at the Olympic Games. While the New England colonies were made up largely of British Puritans, the Middle Colonies were very mixed. Once upon a time … Dependent or not upon Britain's government, the Commonwealth of Nations' member states all have a … Currently[when?] From the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the larger settler colonies – in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa – first became self-governing colonies and then achieved independence in all matters except foreign policy, defence and trade. Early colonies, in the sense of English subjects residing in lands hitherto outside the control of the English government, were generally known as "Plantations". [45], Each overseas territory has its own legal system independent of the United Kingdom. [4], The fourteen British Overseas Territories are:[5]. [33][34] The British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are themselves distinct from the Commonwealth realms, a group of 16 independent countries (including the United Kingdom) each having Elizabeth II as their reigning monarch, and from the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of 53 countries mostly with historic links to the British Empire (which also includes all Commonwealth realms). [86], The three regions of biodiversity hotspots situated in the British Overseas Territories are the Caribbean Islands, the Mediterranean Basin and the Oceania ecozone in the Pacific. This was done with the 1841 Convention of Chuenpi. This list may not reflect recent changes ( learn more ). All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020, Gilbert and Ellice Islands (Kiribati and Tuvalu), 1997 (Now a Chinese special administrative region), 1965 (self governing island state in free association with New Zealand), Mandatory Palestine (Israel, Jordanian annexation of the West Bank, Palestine Protectorate), 1860 (now part of Nicaragua and Honduras), 1846 (became a US territory, then a state), 1783 (became a Spanish colony, later a US territory, Province of Nova Scotia (one of the founding provinces of Canada), Province of Quebec (one of the founding provinces of Canada), 1869 (became part of the Canadian confederation), 1963 (became a state of Malaysia, then separated in 1965), Straits Settlements (Singapore, Malaysia, Borneo), 1946 (Separated and passed to other nations), Swan River Colony (Western Australia, state in Australia). from the British Colonies Updated - June 2014 : The King George V stamps were produced over a 25 year time frame - 1910 to 1935. It began with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. In addition, most territories have customs, immigration, border, and coastguard agencies. Britain began colonizing the world back in the 16th century and spread its power through a strong army and by partnering with local authorities to conduct business. Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were officially referred to as British Crown Colonies. Both Canada and the United States have areas in them that were once British colonies. December 12, 1787 – Pennsylvania becomes the second state of the United States of America. The territories are members of the Commonwealth of Nations through the United Kingdom. The British Antarctic Territory has some overlap with territorial claims by both Argentina and Chile. This "benign neglect," as the British statesman Edmund Burke would call it, encouraged mercantile trade between the colonies and the mother country. [43] With 1997 approaching, the United Kingdom and China negotiated the Sino-British Joint Declaration, which led to the whole of Hong Kong becoming a "special administrative region" of China in 1997, subject to various conditions intended to guarantee the preservation of Hong Kong's capitalist economy and its way of life under British rule for at least 50 years after the handover. The British Empire was the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. Early Settlement New South Wales Captain Arthur Phillip arrived in Botany Bay with the First Fleet. only Montserrat and Saint Helena receive budgetary aid (i.e. These areas became prosperous economically and many people living in them began to wonder at one point why they needed to pay taxes to leaders back in England. The Gibraltar national football team was accepted into UEFA in 2013 in time for the 2016 European Championships. This restored the right of abode in the UK to residents of overseas territories after a 34-year hiatus from 1968 to 2002. In 1860, Kowloon was won by the British, and 1898, the modern dividing line between mainland China and Hong Kong was established. … History. Interestingly enough, most, though not all, of the countries in the British Commonwealth happen to be British colonies. List of Former British Dominions, Colonies, Protectorates, Protected and Associated States, Mandated and Trust Territories. They can be in the form of colonies where UK administered them. An empire is a group of colonies that are ruled by a single power, and while Britain itself has always been quite small in land mass and located far away from many of the places it has governed, it somehow succeeded in growing the largest empire in history. In territories without a permanent population, a Commissioner is usually appointed to represent the Queen. [53], Historically the Secretary of State for the Colonies and the Colonial Office were responsible for overseeing all British Colonies, but today the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) has the responsibility of looking after the interests of all overseas territories except the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which comes under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Defence. In what is now the eastern US, thirteen British colonies were set up during the 17th and 18th centuries. Although the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man are also under the sovereignty of the British monarch, they are in a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom. The Navigation Acts were trade rules that governed commerce between Britain and its colonies. Pound sterling (widely circulated and accepted universally) [55][56] Within the FCO, the general responsibility for the territories is handled by the Overseas Territories Directorate. It is geographically the largest of the 14 British Overseas Territories with an area of 660,000 square miles. In territories with a permanent population, a Governor is appointed by the Queen on the advice of the British Government. Pound sterling (widely circulated and accepted universally) The Commander British Forces Cyprus acts as the territory's Administrator, with a Chief Officer responsible for day-to-day running of the civil government. Early English colonies were usually established and administered by companies under charters granted by the monarch. To combat illicit transportation following this act many of the British Colonies began keeping registers of black slaves who had been so-called “lawfully enslaved”. United States dollar (accepted unofficially in most establishments), Gibraltar pound (parity with pound sterling) With the exceptions of the British Antarctic Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (which host only officials and research station staff) and the British Indian Ocean Territory (used as a military base), the Territories retain permanent civilian populations. Traditionally, the flags follow the Blue Ensign design, with the Union Flag in the canton, and the territory's coat of arms in the fly. Pages in category "Former British colonies" The following 14 pages are in this category, out of 14 total. Jan 1, 1795. It all began back in the 1600s when Britain first set up the East India Company in order to bring silk, spices, tea, and salt from India to Europe. One of the last British colonies to gain its independence was Zimbabwe in 1980. Today, the US is not governed by the UK, and Canada is a sovereign nation but a constitutional monarchy with the Queen of Canada (Queen Elizabeth) as the head of state. [35] The United Kingdom participates in the Antarctic Treaty System[36] and, as part of a mutual agreement, the British Antarctic Territory is recognised by four of the six other sovereign nations making claims to Antarctic territory. A British Overseas Territory is one of fourteen territories which the United Kingdom … Llanito. The Commissioner, supported by an Administrator, runs the affairs of the territory. The first, unofficial, colony was Newfoundland, where English fishermen routinely set up seasonal camps in the 16th century. The protected area would be 234,291 square kilometers, half of which would be closed to fishing. Other colonies were established even further - Coral, at 42 light-years; and Madrigal, the most distant known colony, which lay in the 23 Librae system, 83.7 light-years from Earth. But it is inherently contradictory for an invading force to usher in “civilization.” Britain had many colonies in … Many say the British Empire was made possible by conquering the world by sea, investing in a formidable army, and partnering with local people to further its spread. The Good Government Fund which provides assistance on government administration; The Economic Diversification Programme Budget which aim to diversify and enhance the economic bases of the territories. The Southern part of BAT wa… Gibraltar was not a member of the European Union in its own right, having had its representation in the European Parliament through its Members from South West England. [82] There are at least 180 endemic plant species in the overseas territories as opposed to only 12 on the UK mainland. Below are lists of the countries and territories formerly ruled or administered by the United Kingdom or part of the British Empire, with their independence days.Some countries did not gain their independence on a single date, therefore the latest day of independence is shown with a … The Legendary Pitcairn Islands", "St Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha profiles", "South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands", "Population of Grytviken, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands", "Turks and Caicos Islands Population 2019", "Global Britain and the British Overseas Territories: Resetting the relationship", "Government – Isle of Man Public Services", "Newfoundland History – Early Colonization and Settlement of Newfoundland", "In the Eye of All Trade: Bermuda, Bermudians, and the Maritime Atlantic World, 1680-1783", "House of Commons - Foreign Affairs - Seventh Report", "Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009 (at OPSI)", "LibGuides: United Kingdom Legal Research: British External Territories", "Overseas Territories Joint Ministerial Council 2015 Communique and Progress Report - Publications - GOV.UK", "Britain and the British Antarctic Territory in the wider geopolitics of the Antarctic and the Southern Ocean", "The Overseas Territories: security, success and sustainability", British financial officials in the region for talks with dependent territories, "MP proposes British Overseas Territories be represented in Westminster – MercoPress", "Lib Dems would create an MP for Gibraltar", "UKIP leader defends call for Gibraltar to become part of Britain - Xinhua -", "UK Government White Paper on Overseas Territories, June, 2012. Nevertheless, BVI's official currency is the U.S. Dollar. Each overseas territory has been granted its own flag and coat of arms by the British monarch. Identifying the stamps issued during the reign of King George V is typically a matter of three components: 1. Gibraltar was the only overseas territory that was part of the EU, although it was not part of the European Customs Union, the European Tax Policy, the European Statistics Zone or the Common Agriculture Policy. The term "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, replacing the term British Dependent Territory, introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981. The British Empire is famous for spreading itself to almost every corner of the globe. The colonialism began in the end of 16th and 18th century when England had the trading post and overseas possessions. These included what are now Kenya, Sudan, Lesotho, Botswana, Northern Somalia, Egypt, Eastern Ghana, Gambia, Niger, and Benin. What happened to the rest? The United Kingdom Overseas Territories Association (UKOTA) also represents the interests of the territories in London. Falkland Islands pound (parity with pound sterling) Defence of the Overseas Territories is the responsibility of the UK. A Joint Ministerial Council of UK ministers, and the leaders of the Overseas Territories has been held annually since 2012 to provide representation between UK Government departments and Overseas Territory Governments.[52]. These include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, and the projection of naval power via the colony's privateers, among other areas.[39][40]. Administration and policy changed during the century from the haphazard arrangements of the 17th and 18th centuries to the sophisticated system characteristic of Joseph Chamberlain’s tenure (1895–1900) in the Colonial Office. The Governor is the head of government and leads the Executive Council, consisting of appointed members made up from the Legislative Council and two, These territories have a House of Assembly, Legislative Assembly (Cayman Islands and Montserrat), with political parties. For other uses, see, Location of the United Kingdom and the British Overseas Territories, British Overseas Territories Joint Ministerial Council, Articles relating to British overseas territories, Section 5 of British Nationality Act 1983. Through a process of decolonisation following the Second World War, most of the British colonies in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean gained independence. The names of women have been provided with a cross-reference to the By Victoria Simpson on September 8 2020 in World Facts. During the European Union (EU) membership of the UK the main body of EU law did not apply and, although certain slices of EU law were applied to the overseas territories as part of the EU's Association of Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT Association), they were not commonly enforceable in local courts. [73]Pitcairn Islands dollar (parity with New Zealand dollar; commemorative issue only), United States dollar (de facto)[74][75] The British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) is the subject of a territorial dispute with Mauritius, whose government claim that the separation of the Chagos Archipelago from the rest of British Mauritius in 1965, three years before Mauritius was granted independence from the United Kingdom, was not lawful. After the independence of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in Africa in 1980 and British Honduras (now Belize) in Central America in 1981, the last major colony that remained was Hong Kong, with a population of over 5 million. The Executive Council is usually called a cabinet and is led by a, Bermuda, settled in 1609, and self-governed since 1620, is the oldest of the Overseas Territories. The British Empire is famous for spreading itself to almost every corner of the globe. The Dominions achieved almost full independence with the Statute of Westminster (1931). In smaller territories, the senior officer(s) may be recruited or seconded from a UK police force, and specialist staff and equipment may be sent to assist the local force. [87][88][89], In January 2016, the UK government announced the intention to create a marine protected area around Ascension Island. The governors of the territories may also allow naturalization of non-BOTCs as BOTCs. An empire is a group of colonies that are ruled by a single power, and while Britain itself has always been quite small in land mass and located far away from many of the places it has governed, it somehow succeeded in growing the largest empire in history. [3][better source needed], As of April 2018[update], three Territories (the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar and the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia in Cyprus) are the responsibility of the Minister of State for Europe and the Americas; the Minister responsible for the remaining Territories is the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Overseas Territories and Sustainable Development. The act made the trade in slaves from Africa to the British colonies illegal. The British Empire ruled over many countries in Africa, beginning in 1870. At this time, these included New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and “Canada” which was comprised of Upper and Lower Canada, today the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. It remains to be seen if any one power will again dominate over such a large portion of the globe, but history does have a tendency to repeat itself. The Governor is also responsible for liaising with the UK Government, and carrying out any ceremonial duties. History Talk (0) Share. North America Northern and Central America Britain. 1651 Navigation Acts. By the 1750s until 1947, Britain ruled the Subcontinent. Pound sterling (de jure)[76][77]. This is particularly important for cases involving serious crimes and where it is impossible to find a jury who will not know the defendant in a small population island.[51]. Pitcairn Islands, settled by the survivors of the Mutiny on the Bounty, is the smallest settled territory with 49 inhabitants, while the smallest by land area is Gibraltar on the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It retains strong cultural ties with Britain. Most countries do not recognise the sovereignty claims of any other country, including Britain's, to Antarctica and its off-shore islands. 1. Permanent residency for the approximately 7,000 civilians living in the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is limited to citizens of the Republic of Cyprus. It grew at a unique time in history, and while it has shrunk considerably since it began, the effects of the empire are felt globally to this day. During the First Opium War between China and Britain in 1839, China temporarily gave Hong Kong Island over to the British. There were only two exceptions: Falkland Islanders, who were automatically granted British citizenship and was treated as a part of the UK proper through the enactment of British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983 due to the Falklands War with Argentina, and Gibraltarians who were given the special entitlement to be registered as British citizens upon request without further conditions because of its individual membership in the European Economic Area and the European Community.[66]. The Middle Colonies . Beyond that were the Outer Colonies. The structure of the government appears to be closely correlated to the size and political development of the territory. British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies— colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government. [45], All the overseas territories have their own system of government, and localised laws. Five nations contest, with counter-claims, the UK's sovereignty in the following overseas territories: None of the overseas territories has its own nationality status, and most residents hold two forms of British nationality: British Overseas Territories citizenship (BOTC) and British citizenship. Dominions were those colonies that were granted significant freedom to rule themselves. Collectively, the Territories encompass a population of about 250,000 people[31] and a land area of about 1,700,000 square kilometres (660,000 sq mi). The remaining two Governors are former members of the British armed forces. Bermuda and Bermudians have played important, sometimes pivotal, but generally underestimated or unacknowledged roles in the shaping of the English and British trans-Atlantic Empires. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of military or scientific personnel. These and other large self-governing colonies had become known as Dominions by the 1920s. financial contribution to recurrent funding). The British Antarctic Territory is a section of the Antarctic under the jurisdiction of the UK. When colonial flags were introduced in 1869 few colonies had arms. Canada’s road to independence has been long and winding. The long-running dispute was referred in 2017 to the International Court of Justice, which issued an advisory opinion on 25 February 2019 which supported the position of the Government of Mauritius. In addition, there are 14 overseas territories of Britain that are remnants of former British colonies. [83], The UK created the largest continuous marine protected areas in the world, the Chagos Marine Protected Area, and announced in 2015 funding to establish a new, larger, reserve around the Pitcairn Islands. Canadian colonies Island of St. John; Rupert's Land (A private estate stretching from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains, and from the prairies to the Arctic Circle.) Proctor, Wade-Fray and Cassar qualified for Team GB, with Williams missing the cut, however wishing to represent the UK in 2016.[80][81]. The, There is no elected government. The territory includes three regions which were administered independently as part of the Falkland Islands before 1962. The nations conquered were linked in trade as well as in politics, and this lasted for quite a while. Introduction. However, territorial claims on the continent may not currently be advanced, under the holding measures of the Antarctic Treaty System. Education in British colonies and former colonies. A Commissioner has the same powers as a Governor, but also acts as the head of government. Individual overseas territories have legislative independence over immigration, and consequently, BOTC status does not automatically grant the right of abode in any of the territories, as it depends on the territory's immigration laws. Here is a brief look at some former British Colonies and how they came to be. British Colonies in Australia Jan 26, 1788. The Currency Act: The Currency Act consisted of several acts, such as the Currency Act of 1751 and … In 1583 he embarked … The Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus were never part of the European Union, but they are the only British overseas territory to use the euro as official currency. [41] Most former colonies and protectorates became member states of the Commonwealth of Nations, a non-political, voluntary association of equal members, comprising a population of around 2.2 billion people.[42]. [1][2] They are remnants of the British Empire and do not form part of the United Kingdom itself. The end of an era, which began in the 16th century, finally came around in 1997 when Hong Kong, one of the empire’s most prominent territories, was transferred back to China. At the other end of the scale, three territories have no civilian population; the Antarctic territory, the British Indian Ocean Territory (from which the Chagos Islanders were controversially removed) and South Georgia. The UK's mainland consists of the island of Great Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) and Northern Ireland. Its capital is Road Town. The first of the Navigation Acts existed for almost two centuries and was repealed in 1849. Following World War II, Britain lost much of its wealth and authority which led to granting India its independence as dissatisfaction with British rule was growing in the colony. It has been accepted by FIFA and went into the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying, where they achieved 0 points. Euro (accepted unofficially in most establishments), Saint Helenian pound (parity with pound sterling) [78], Shara Proctor from Anguilla, Delano Williams from the Turks and Caicos Islands, Jenaya Wade-Fray from Bermuda[79] and Georgina Cassar from Gibraltar strived to represent Team GB at the London 2012 Olympics. [90], A Stoplight Parrotfish in Princess Alexandra Land and Sea National Park, Providenciales, Turks and Caicos Islands, Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region, Territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom, "BOTs" redirects here. [65] In 1983, CUKC status of residents of overseas territories without the right of abode in the UK was replaced by British Dependent Territories citizenship (BDTC) in the newly minted British Nationality Act 1981, a status that does not come with it the right of abode in the UK or any overseas territory. Today, Hong Kong is governed under the “one country, two systems” relationship. The bicameral, The Turks and Caicos Islands adopted a new constitution effective 9 August 2006; their head of government now also has the title, All members elected either as MPs in the UK cabinet, Defence, security and safety of the territories and their people. As far as possible, there is convergence of laws, The Government consists of an elected Legislative Council. The British Overseas Territories generally look after their own policing matters and have their own police forces. They needed to put the convicts somewhere else. 1 Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. The Potato FamineThe Irish hatred of British is age-old, yet justified all the more. Australia (1788 – 1911) The growth of the British Empire in the 19th century, to its territorial peak in the 1920s, saw Britain acquire nearly one quarter of the world's land mass, including territories with large indigenous populations in Asia and Africa. These include Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, the Bahamas, Australia, Belize, Barbados, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, St Kitts and Nevis, St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. Some territories may have other forces beyond the main territorial police, for instance an airport police, such as Airport Security Police (Bermuda), or a defence police force, such as the Gibraltar Defence Police. For the smaller territories, the UK may appoint a UK-based lawyer or judge to work on legal cases. Who will be next? Many of the overseas territories are used as military bases by the UK and its allies. In 2002, the British Parliament passed the British Overseas Territories Act 2002. The British Empire was massive and was created with crafty, creative, and domineering ways of thinking. The OCT Association also provided overseas territories with structural funding for regeneration projects. Full British citizenship[64] has been granted to most 'belongers' of overseas territories (mainly since the British Overseas Territories Act 2002). Page 23",, "British Indian Ocean Territory Currency", "Representing Britain...and Bermuda | Bermuda Olympics 2012", "Williams' Olympic hopes on hold for 4 more years", "At last! United States dollar (accepted unofficially)[72]Pound sterling is also accepted. English colonisation of North America began officially in 1607 with the settlement of Jamestown, the first successful permanent colony in Virginia (a term that was then applied generally to North America). This reclassified the UK's dependent territories as overseas territories and, with the exception of those people solely connected with the Sovereign Base Areas of Cyprus, restored full British citizenship to their inhabitants.[44]. George Town in the Cayman Islands has consequently become the largest city in the Overseas Territories. British Empire - British Empire - Dominance and dominions: The 19th century marked the full flower of the British Empire. The Queen's role in the territories is in her role as Queen of the United Kingdom, and not in right of each territory. In 1842, this temporary set up became a permanent deal with the Treaty of Nanjing. [45] The Queen appoints a representative in each territory to exercise her executive power. The British believed that because they had superior weaponry and were therefore more technologically advanced than the Africans, that they had a right to colonize and exploit the resources of the Africans in the name of promoting civilization. Some colonies became Commonwealth realms, retaining the British monarch as their own head of state. There is no native or permanent population; therefore there is no elected government. Exceptionally, in the oversea territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, an Administrator is appointed to be the Governor's representative in each of the two distant parts of the territory, namely Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha. [84][85] Gibraltar's Gorham's Cave Complex is also found on the UK's tentative UNESCO World Heritage Site list. It controlled over one fourth of the planet’s population. [61], Two national parties, UKIP and the Liberal Democrats, have endorsed calls for direct representation of overseas territories in the UK Parliament, as well as backbench members of the Conservative Party and Labour Party.[62][63]. As far as current British overseas territories go, these include land in the Antarctic as well as Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean territory, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, the Pitcairn Islands, St Helena and its Dependencies, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, and the Turks & Caicos Islands. The British empire ruled over British North America in what is now Canada, beginning in about 1860. British influence in India has been longlasting, and English is commonly used as a lingua franca in the country. Akrotiri and Dhekelia and Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha are the only British overseas territories without their own flag, though Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha have their own individual flags. One of the last major colonies to be given up by Britain was Hong Kong which was given back to China on July 1st 1997. The Union Flag is used in these territories. [citation needed] Several specialist funds are made available by the UK, including: The territories have no official representation in the UK Parliament, but have informal representation through the All-Party Parliamentary Group,[60] and can petition the UK Government through the Directgov e-Petitions website. The Middle Colonies were located in the area now described as the Mid-Atlantic and included Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. There is no elected government, as there is no native settled population. They include: The many British overseas territories use a varied assortment of currencies, including the euro, pound, US dollar, NZ dollar, or their own currencies, which may be pegged to one of these. Why New South Wales was established In England, the jails had become over crowded. The fate of these colonies after achieving independence provides a window into the innate ability of various populations… The watermark - Either Multiple Crown CA or Multiple Script CA. If they are not currently under British rule, these locations were at one time. The legal system is generally based on English common law, with some distinctions for local circumstances. Queen Victoria's 1837 ascension to the throne ushered in British empire industrialization and global expansion. The head of state in the overseas territories is the British monarch, Elizabeth II. United States dollar (accepted unofficially on Ascension Island), United States dollar

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