biznesowi
0
Jesteś zalogowany jako: Adam Kowalski
PL EN

millet gore tex jacket

02.12.2020

The "redback" phase consists of a gray or black body with a red or orange stripe down the back, extending from the neck onto the tail. Scientific Name: Plethodon cinereus. The red back(or redbackor red-backed) salamander(Plethodon cinereus) is a small, hardy woodland salamander. In the United States, eastern red-backed salamanders range throughout New England, southward to western and northeastern North Carolina, and northwestward to western Minnesota, where a disjunct population is found (Petranka, 1998). Eastern North America. Craig Howard (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. Southern red-backed salamanders occur in four disjunct populations in the southern United States. This dataset represents a species known range extent for Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) within the conterminous United States (CONUS) based on 2001 ground conditions. Jaeger, Robert G., Jill A. Wicknick, Martha R. Griffis, and Carl D. Anthony. They learn each others territorial boundaries, the size and importance of the salamanders that live in the area, and their identity, including whether or not they are related. Share your photo. The Southern Red Backed salamander occurs in the Blue Ridge Mountains south of the French Broad River, while the identical Eastern Red-backed Salamander occurs north of the French Broad River. The Shenandoah salamander is an endangered salamander that is at risk of extinction due to its small, high-elevation range, competition with the co-occurring red-backed salamander, and the predicted future climate in the Appalachian mountain range. Description: A small, slender salamander (2.5 to 4.0 inches … Red-backed salamander habitat is rather pervasive, and they are common in most of their range. Butterflies have complete metamorphosis, grasshoppers have incomplete metamorphosis. The … Eastern red-backed salamanders extend from Minnesota to North Carolina and northeastern Tennessee in the United States, and from western Ontario to southern Quebec and throughout Nova Scotia in Canada. The physical environment determines food supply and foraging habits. This dataset represents a species known range extent for Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) within the conterminous United States (CONUS) based on 2001 ground conditions. The known range for a species can be used to constrain the boundaries of the species distribution model and in assessments of the conservation status and/or threats within the range of a species. Click on title to download individual files attached to this item. The Eastern Backed salamander occurs in the northeast corner of TN, while the identical Southern Red-backed Salamander occurs in southeast corner of TN.. Conant, Roger. The Eastern Red-backed Salamander . Larvae eat snails, Pacific Tree Frogs, and Red-legged Frog tadpoles. The body is slender and the legs are small to the point that, at first glance, the species can be confused with an earthworm. 1985. In the future, however, they could be effected by high levels of acid in the soil caused by human-induced factors like acid rain. forest biomes are dominated by trees, otherwise forest biomes can vary widely in amount of precipitation and seasonality. 1988. Red-backed Salamanders are uncommon in the pet trade and there are very few breeders out there despite them easily breeding in captivity. The Southern Red Backed salamander occurs in the Blue Ridge Mountains south of the French Broad River, while the identical Eastern Red-backed Salamander occurs north of the French Broad River. Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes). Jaeger, Robert G. 1972. animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature. (2020-10-16 09:48), U.S. Geological Survey - Gap Analysis Project Species Range Maps CONUS_2001, Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) aERBSx_CONUS_2001v1 Range Map, https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/58fa4025e4b0b7ea54524965, Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) aERBSx_CONUS_2001v1 Habitat Map, Source data for strHUC12RNG in species range, https://www.sciencebase.gov/vocab/category/bis/bis_identifiers/GAP_SpeciesCode, https://www.sciencebase.gov/vocab/category/bis/bis_identifiers/CommonName, https://www.sciencebase.gov/vocab/category/bis/bis_identifiers/ScientificName, https://www.sciencebase.gov/vocab/identifier/term/doi, https://www.sciencebase.gov/vocab/category/bis/bis_identifiers/itis_tsn_validMatch, https://www.sciencebase.gov/vocab/category/bis/bis_identifiers/nsid_acceptedMatch, https://www.sciencebase.gov/vocab/category/bis/bis_identifiers/iucn_id_verified, https://www.sciencebase.gov/geoserver/CONUS_Range_2001/wms?service=WMS&version=1.1.0&request=GetCapabilities, Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) aERBSx v1, https://www.sciencebase.gov:443/geoserver/CONUS_Range_2001/wms?SERVICE=WMS&. Fall—with it’s rainy weather—is prime time for red-backed salamanders. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. Its body is mainly dark gray or black with a light middorsal stripe down the back and on to the tail. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern. Gadow says, "Ple- thodon erythronotus extends into Canada," while Boulenger would have it range in the eastern United States and Canada. Habitat: Deciduous, mixed hardwood-conifer, and coniferous forest. The 3 sister species in this region, P. elongatus, P. stormi, and Plethodon asupak (Scott Bar Salamander), all display relatively high levels of genetic variation within 1992. im Salamander überbacken [gratinieren, überkrusten]gastr. They occur on some coastal islands eastward to an altitude of about 800 m in the Washington Cascades (Brown and Slater, 1939; Slater and Brown, 1941; Slater, 1955). The effects of soil pH on sodium balance in the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus, and three other terrestrial salamanders. Ecology, 76(2):533-543. Red-backed salamanders belong to the Plethodontidae family, as do five out of the eleven types of salamanders in Massachusetts. Eastern North America. This behavior occurs most often when moisture levels are low and the salamanders have to retreat under logs or rocks. Red-backed salamanders are common throughout most their range. The other color the salamander may be is lead-backed, resulting in the body lacking red pigmentation. Range The western red-backed salamander can be found from British Columbia south to southern Oregon. 1995, Simons et al. Ethology, 78:143-152. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. marshes are wetland areas often dominated by grasses and reeds. Due to the small habitat range, interspecies competition, and climate change, the population of the Shenandoah salamander is vulnerable to extinction. During dry parts of summer, it may be found near seepages, springs, or in thick leaf litter in ravines. Eastern Red-backed Salamander, Plethodon cinereus The Eastern Backed salamander occurs in the northeast corner of TN, while the identical Southern Red-backed Salamander occurs in southeast corner of TN. lil baby! The Eastern Red-backed Salamander is widespread in Canada and remains abundant throughout most of its Canadian range. Conservation - No range retractions of Eastern Red-backed Salamanders have been reported, but local extirpations have been due to habitat changes, chiefly deforestation, and other, unknown causes (see Highton, 2003). Red-backed salamanders belong to Plethodontidae, a crowded family of little lungless salamanders that scientists think evolved somewhere in the Appalachian Mountains between 60 … Like many other amphibians, salamanders can be hurt by high levels of acidity. The primary threat to this species is the loss of mature forest, primarily through urbanization, clearing of land for agriculture and logging. Description: A small, slender salamander (2.5 to 4.0 inches in length) with two color morphs, striped and lead-backed. The "leadback" phase lacks the red stripe, with a purely black or grey back instead. Diet If another salamander enters their territory, these salamanders will exhibit threatening displays to scare off the intruder. Plethodon serratus. They are most common in areas of appropriate habitat throughout the midwestern United States. The eastern red-backed salamander is most commonly observed in deciduous or mixed forests but may also be found in cool, moist white pine or hemlock forests. Jaeger, Robert G. 1980. Though salamanders contrib- ute to several forest ecosystem functions, little is known about their climatic niche and future distribution. fertilization takes place within the female's body. Habitat The western red-backed salamander can be found under rocks and fallen wood, along stream banks and in shady forests. While the Shenandoah salamander’s habitat is now protected within a national park, past timbering and other activities may have reduced the species range. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. The Shenandoah salamander inhabits a very small range of land on just three mountain peaks. CITES: no special status. This dataset represents a species known range extent for Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) within the conterminous United States (CONUS) based on 2001 ground conditions. Range The western red-backed salamander can be found from British Columbia south to southern Oregon. The red-backed salamander catches its prey by using its long, strong tongue to capture it, much like a frog does. Description: A small, slender salamander (2.5 to 4.0 inches in length) with two color morphs, striped and lead-backed. 1997). Topics National Science Foundation red-backed salamander removal on a variety of ecosystem functions and on a spatial scale an order of magnitude larger than their home range. They are absent from coastal plains south of Virginia and the Florida peninsula. When finding food is very hard due to dry conditions, adults who have their own territories will sometimes allow young salamanders that are related to them to use their territories. living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. It can range from yellow to orange, or even white. However, they are sympatric with Red-backed Salamanders in several different areas including central Pennsylvania and near Monterey, Highlands County, Virginia (Highton, 1972). Copeia, 1996(3):576-586. On average, our site-specific densities ranged from 3.10 to 5.26 salamanders m −2 , while published estimates range from 0.05 to 3.28 salamanders m −2 [ 27 , 55 – 64 ]. Photo by Todd Pierson. Similar species: The dorsal stripe of the southern red-backed salamander (P. serratus) is uniform in width, wider, and has serrated (toothed) edges. Red-backed salamanders are terrestrial, and live in deciduous forests throughout their geographic range. This dataset represents a species known range extent for Western Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon vehiculum) within the conterminous United States (CONUS) based on 2001 ground conditions. Red-backeds are very small salamanders only getting 2.5-5 inches big. For species specific range information, see the attached Range data. Description. In insects, "incomplete metamorphosis" is when young animals are similar to adults and change gradually into the adult form, and "complete metamorphosis" is when there is a profound change between larval and adult forms. Eastern Red-backed Salamander. They have the ability to drop all or part of their tail if under attack from a predator and can grow a new one afterwards. (Harding and Homan 1992, Conant 1975). Size: Length: 2¼–4 inches. The Western Red-backed Salamander can be confused with the Coeur d’Alène Salamander or the Long-toed Salamander. Range and Habitat: Southern Redback Salamanders are found in disjunct populations found in the mountains of west-central Arkansas, southeastern Oklahoma, central and southeastern Missouri, and the the northwestern third of Georgia. Southern Red-Backed Salamander-20191227-131303.jpeg. Coloration varies widely, but 2 distinct color morphs are known: the red-back and the lead-back phase. Louisiana Conservation Status: Southern Red-backed Salamanders have a ranking of S1 (critically imperiled because of extreme rarity – 5 or fewer known extant populations) in Louisiana. Red-backed Salamanders protect their limited food supply by marking out territories. No range retractions of eastern red-backed salamanders have been reported, but local extirpations have been due to habitat changes, chiefly deforestation, and other, unknown causes (see Highton, 2003). Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. The red salamander's range extends from parts of northern New York to the Gulf Coast in elevations ranging from sea level to about 1500 feet. No distinctions between males and females are noted. The primary threat to this species is the loss of mature forest, primarily through urbanization, clearing of land for agriculture and logging. … Their range extends west to Missouri; south to North Carolina; and north from southern Quebec and the Maritime Provinces in Canada to Minnesota. Maglia, Anne M. 1996. Simons, Richard R., Robert G. Jaeger, and Bruce E. Felgenhaur. Their range extends west to Missouri; south to North Carolina; and north from southern Quebec and the Maritime Provinces in Canada to Minnesota. U.S. Geological Survey - Gap Analysis Project, 2017, Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) aERBSx_CONUS_2001v1 Range Map, http://doi.org/10.5066/F7P26X90. As moisture decreases they are limited to the leaf litter, and as that subsequently dries up they eventually are restricted to areas under rocks or logs or in burrows that will continue to retain moisture. Intruders are also warned away by seeing the size of the salamander and watching it give threatening displays. This competition tends to limit the range of Shenandoah Salamander populations to drier rocky talus slopes. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. Physiological Zoology, 64(4):1050-1068. There is no reason to expect that red-backed salamanders can't also reach these ages. Empirical evaluation of the hypothesis of food competition in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. These ranges are: the Salem Plateau of southeast Missouri, the Ouachita Mountains of extreme southeast Oklahoma and west-central Arkansas, the Piedmont Plateau and Blue Ridge Mountains of northwest Georgia and nearby portions of extreme eastern Alabama, eastern Tennessee, … The Red-Backed Salamander is sympatric (occurs side by side) throughout the range of this species and the Zigzag Salamander occurs alongside this species in eastern Jefferson and western Switzerland Counties. Jason M. Townsend, Charles T. Driscoll, Red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) as a bioindicator of mercury in terrestrial forests of the northeastern United States, Ecological Indicators, 10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.04.017, 34, (168-171), (2013). Range - Red-backed salamanders are native to the Nearctic (temperate) region only. In the United States, Eastern Red-backed Salamanders range throughout New England, southward to western and northeastern North Carolina, and northwestward to western Minnesota, where a disjunct population is found (Petranka, 1998). Red-backed salamanders belong to the Plethodontidae family, as do five out of the eleven types of salamanders in Massachusetts. Ecology, 53(3):535-546. The species is restricted to mature woodlands with lots of fallen logs, coarse woody debris and leaf litter. green or tan stripe down its back. Red-backed salamanders lay eggs that develop directly into small salamanders. No matter the color of the back, red-backed salamanders have black and white speckled bellies. Both males and females leave scent marks on substrate as well as on fecal pellets. Scientific Name: Plethodon cinereus Size: 2.3 – 5” (adult length) Status: Quite common throughout Michigan. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. This dataset represents a species known range extent for Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) within the conterminous United States (CONUS) based on 2001 ground conditions. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! Like the other members of its family, red-backed salamanders are lungless and they breathe through their skin, which is why they are dependent upon moisture. The Northern Dusky Salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) is much more robust and generally brownish in coloration with a light line running from its eyes to its jaw. Description: Small, slender salamander with a red stripe that runs down the middle of the back from the nape of the neck down onto the tail. The median number of cover objects needed to detect a species was 34 (range 1–145) for Eastern Red-backed Salamanders, 129.5 (range 34–204) for Blue-spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma laterale), and 154 (range 6–187) for Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum), and these detection rates differed significantly (H = 9.46, P < 0.01). Michigan Frogs, Toads, and Salamanders: A Field Guide and Pocket Reference. Adult Coloration: There are two common color morphs that occur with in most populations. Ecology, 57(3):459-471. to gratinate sth. These salamanders appear to be better adapted to drier habitat conditions than are Red-backed Salamanders. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. See Gap Analysis Project Species Range Maps for more information regarding data creation and user constraints. These chemical cues provide a great deal of information to other salamanders, including boundaries of the territorial area, size and status of the resident, and identity of the resident. They are not normally found where the soil is saturated or acidic. See, Click on title to download individual files attached to this item, Build Version: 2.169.0-62-g42d95ae-0 In Louisiana, Southern Red-backed Salamanders have a State Protection Status of ‘prohibited’, meaning possession or harvest of this species is illegal. Search in feature The underside of the red-backed salamander has extensive black and white mottling. Habitat: Inhabit coniferous, deciduous, and mixed forests. This material is based upon work supported by the This range map was created by attributing sub-watershed polygons with information of a species' presence, origin, seasonal and reproductive use. Fluctuations in prey availability and food limitation for a terrestrial salamander. Fall—with it’s rainy weather—is prime time for red-backed salamanders. At these times the leaf litter on the forest floor as well as the forest vegetation is very moist. When disturbed, they will crawl into tunnels or under leaves. 1997 Competitor assessment and area defense by territorial salamanders. Its belly is a mottled white and gray in both phases, creating a salt and pepper pattern. A terrestrial salamander that commonly lives in forests, where it hides under rocks, clumps of mosses, and rotten logs. 1991. In a healthy temperate forest, biologists estimate that the number of red-backed salamanders exceeds the total number of all birds and mammals combined. to gratinate sth. Habitat Diet. having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror-image halves. The Coeur d’Alène Salamander has an uneven-edged stripe, 14 costal groves, large parotid glands, a heavier body and larger limbs. Biogeographic Regions; nearctic. Research indicates that the range of the Shenandoah Salamander is restricted in part by competition with the Red-back Salamander. How to identify Ontario’s eight species of turtles. Range length 5.7 to 12.7 cm 2.24 to 5.00 in; Average basal metabolic rate 9.9e-05 W AnAge; Where do they live? Red-backed salamanders protect their limited food supply by marking out territories. A salamander found in Bourbon, MO. Red-backed salamanders feed on a large variety of invertebrates. 1995. Ontogeny and feeding ecology of the red-backed salamander, Plethodon cinereus. Block, Steven. Noticeably territorial, eastern red-backed salamanders will mark their territory with their scent and dung to notify other salamanders of their presence, range and size. When foraging is very stressful due to dry conditions, adults holding territories will sometimes allow juveniles access to their territories. Like the other members of its family, red-backed salamanders are lungless and they breathe through their skin, which is why they are dependent upon moisture. Wide range of conditions are tolerated, with the exception of very dry, … The chronically lethal pH level for P. cinereus is between 3 and 4, and they are rarely found on soils with a pH of 3.7 or lower. (Horne and Jaeger 1988, Jaeger et al. breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. Oecologia, 44:335-341. Other salamanders can learn a lot from these clues. Within their range (Southeastern Canada, New England, the Great Lakes region, and the middle eastern US states) eastern red-backed salamanders can be very plentiful. The tail that grows back is often lighter in color than the original tail. The decrease in moisture does not affect the availability of prey, but it limits the mobility of the salamanders due to their moisture requirements. This range map was created by attributing sub-watershed polygons with information of a species' presence, origin, seasonal and reproductive use. F salamander [Harry Potter] Feuersalamander {m} Taxa/Spezies (Tiere, Pflanzen, Pilze) zool. In addition to the chemical information, visual cues of size and threatening displays determine what the behavior reactions of the intruder and the resident will be. Red-backed Salamander Range. native; Habitat. Food levels are scarcer under logs or rocks and in burrows and the supply is easily exhaustible. Red-backed salamanders are … tid salamanders, the highly range-restricted Shenandoah salamander (Plethodon shenandoah) and the wide- ranging red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus). Red-backed salamanders are native to the Nearctic region only. It is one of the most numerous salamanders throughout its range. The eastern red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) is a wide-ranging woodland species and one of the most abundant verte-brates in northeastern North America. Many kept are typically wild caught individuals, but adapt to captivity when kept properly. The stripe is bordered by black, and the belly is mottled black and white, giving it a salt-and-pepper appearance. Contributor Galleries The red-backed salamander's range extends west to Missouri; south to North Carolina; and north from southern Quebec and the Maritime Provinces in Canada to Minnesota (Conant 1975). Habitat/Range : These salamanders are found in the mountains of northwestern North Carolina, in a small area of the central Piedmont, and in much of the Coastal Plain. Scientific Name: Plethodon cinereus Size: 2.2 to 5.0 inches (5 .7-12.7 cm) in length Status: Abundant . These physical characteristics help to distinguish the red-backed salamander from other salamanders similar in appearance. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Ge­o­graphic Range South­ern red-backed sala­man­ders occur in four dis­junct pop­u­la­tions in the south­ern United States. Red-backed Salamander - Plethodon cinereus. Life Cycle The western red-backed salamander mates from November to December. Winter 2011 Pelletier and others: Western Red-backed Salamander 201 ing north-south structure throughout their range in southern Oregon and northern Cali-fornia (Mahoney 2004). APPEARANCE & SIZE. Description: There are two distinct color morphs of the southern red-backed salamander. The salamanders wander throughout the leaf litter during the day and climb plants and trees at night to find prey, feeding on both ground-dwelling and arboreal invertebrates. Eastern Red-backed Salamander. A salamander of forested areas, the redback can be found hiding beneath rocks, clumps of moss, and decaying logs where the substrate remains moist. It inhabits wooded slopes in eastern North America, west to Missouri, south to North Carolina, and north from southern Quebec and the Maritime Provinces in Canada to Minnesota. Diet: Red-backed salamanders primarily dine on invertebrates, such as spiders, snails, ants, beetles, centipedes, earthworms, and insects. Red-backed salamanders play an important biological role in both providing food for their predators as well as consuming large numbers of invertebrates. (Hairston, 1983). They do not have an aquatic larva stage, such as is found in other salamanders and most amphibians. Geographic range and origin: Eastern red-backed Salamanders are native to the eastern portion of the United States ranging from South Carolina on in to Canada and west as far as Minnesota, Illinois and Missouri.They are widely distributed and also come in a wide variety of color morphs which can sometimes make distinguishing them very difficult. Kin can be recognized through olfactory communication, and this juvenile access is generally relegated to kin. Hairston, N. 1983. Description: A small, slender salamander (2.5 to 4.0 inches in length) with two color morphs, striped and lead-backed. Typical adult male red-backed salamanders range from 81 to 105 mm on average, with the largest recorded specimen in Missouri measuring 107 mm (Johnson, 2000). GAP range maps represent a coarse representation of the total areal extent of a species or the geographic limits within which a species can be found. While working in Louisiana, psychologist Claudia Uller, of the University of Essex, UK, tested the numerical abilities of a local amphibian, the red-backed salamander. Due to their lack of lungs, eastern red-backed salamanders need to live in damp or moist habitats in order to breathe. One salamander has a home range of only a few square metres, so many—up to 2,500 per square hectare—can pack themselves into even a small portion of a cottage-country forest. They live in fallen leaves as well as under rocks, logs, or in small burrows. They are found in the leaf litter on the ground as well as under rocks, logs, or in small burrows. that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle) and between 23.5 degrees South and 60 degrees South (between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle). Taxon Information Salamander Range: Salamander Range {f} 4 Wörter: Verben: gastr. We conducted this study over 4 years to provide information on the effects of predator removal on the system beyond just the initial perturbation. Frisbie, Malcolm Pratt, and Richard L. Wyman. While working in Louisiana, psychologist Claudia Uller, of the University of Essex, UK, tested the numerical abilities of a local amphibian, the red-backed salamander. Red-backed salamanders have been shown to exhibit the same primary response to acidic substrate as do amphibian larvae exposed to acidic water, disruption of their sodium balance. Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) Size- 2-3.5 inches Activity- April-September Habitat- coniferous, deciduous, and mixed woodlands, under old logs, leaf litter, fallen bark, and rocks with moist soil Diet- Carnivore: insects and insect larvae, mites, centipedes, pill bugs, spiders, slugs, snails, and earthworms. Red-backed salamander in Bollinger County . The red-backed salamander is a small terrestrial salamander, 5.7–10.0 cm (2.2–3.9 in) in total length (including tail), which usually lives in forested areas under rocks, logs, bark, and other debris. Consequently, red-backed salamanders are pulse feeders that eat large amounts when conditions are favorable and store the extra nourishment as fat to live off of when conditions become poor. Plethodon jordani has a mean generation time of 9.8 years, with 77% surviving to 10 years old. A small, slender salamander with a maximum length of 5 inches (12.7 cm) (see Klemens 1992). One salamander has a home range of only a few square metres, so many—up to 2,500 per square hectare—can pack themselves into even a small portion of a cottage-country forest. State of Michigan List: no special status

Mexican Ambrosia Salad, Pizza Fries Restaurants, La Brea Tar Pits Picnic, Oxidation Number Of Carbon In Methanoic Acid, Asus Tuf Fx504 Specs, Bananas And Oranges Together, Hidden Valley Ranch Dip Packet Directions, Strawberry Jam Oatmeal Cookies, Portfolio Management Program Blackstone,


Komentarze (0) Komentujesz jako - [zmień]

aby dodać komentarz, wpisz swój adres e-mail

WPROWADŹ SWOJE DANE, ABY DODAĆ KOMENTARZ

lub

Brak komentarzy. Twój może być pierwszy.

Zobacz wcześniejsze komentarze

Wróć